India, with a population of 1.5 billion, is one of the largest carbon emitters. Its low and middle-income class is vulnerable to the climate crisis and needs development.

The Indian federal and sub-regional governments have proactively mitigated the climate crisis through policies and mechanisms. Some of the government’s key mitigation policies include improving energy efficiency and conservation, power sector reforms, promotion of hydro and renewable energy and clean coal technologies, coal washing and its efficient utilization, afforestation and conversation of forests, reduction of gas flaring, cleaner and lesser carbon-intensive fuel for transport, encouraging mass rapid transport systems and environmental quality management.

However, it is a well-known fact that most of the services and products produced using fossil fuel elements (such as coal, oil, and gas) are cheaper to produce and buy than renewables. In addition, the sector also provides employment opportunities to many of the population at various layers. Statistically, in 2023, 330,000 people were employed by the coal sector, 0.7 million by the petroleum sector, and 102,000 by the natural gas distribution sector. This employment pattern is expected to remain for the foreseeable future.

Leading domestic fossil fuel companies, both in the public and private sectors, have been gradually ramping up their plans to transition to clean and green energy resources. They also focus on training their existing and critical employees for jobs in the renewable energy sector. However, the companies still have a long way to go to complete their energy transition.

Another challenge for these companies is scaling clean and renewable energy production and keeping the renewable energy pricing per unit low. India has led the renewable energy sector through the International Solar Alliance, Biofuel Alliance, and Green Hydrogen initiatives. Still, these initiatives will likely take some time to mature before delivering the intended results.

The Indian government is struggling to meet its stated goal of balancing the country’s economic interests with environmental protection, given its population’s sheer size and economic needs.

This Post was submitted by Climate Scorecard India Country Manager Pooran Chandra Pandey.

POSTED BY Pooran Chandra Pandey | Mar, 07, 2024 |